Inside the tooth, the pulp’s soft tissue contains the blood supply, by which the tooth gets its nutrients, and the nerve, by which the tooth senses hot and cold. If a tooth becomes diseased or injured, bacteria build up inside the pulp, spreading infection from the natural crown of the tooth to the root tips in the jawbone. Pus accumulates at the ends of the roots, forming a painful abscess which can damage the bone supporting the teeth. Severe pain is very common, constant, or throbbing, as well as prolonged sensitivity to heat or cold, the surrounding gums will also be affected. In some cases the pullp dies and hiddes the pain (Necrosis).
Local anesthesia is required to perform root canal. After the tooth is isolated by a thin sheet of rubber, the rest of the tooth decay is removed following the opening is placed in the mouth to isolate the tooth . The dentist removes any tooth decay and makes an opening through the natural crown of the tooth into the pulp chamber.
Length of the root canals is determined usually with a series of x rays.The entire canal space is carefully cleaned of diseased pulp tissue and bacteria. After abundant irrrigation with water the canals are resized to recieve filling material. Antibiotics have to be prescribed to heal the existing infection and prevent its spread. root canal treatment may require several visits to the dentist.
After being completely clean, the canals are filled sealed cement to prevent bacteria from entering the tooth in the future. A metal post may be placed in the pulp chamber for added structural support and better retention of the crown restoration. The tooth is protected by a temporary filling or crown until a permanent restoration may be made. This restoration is usually a gold or porcelain crown.

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